It’s fascinating to watch the focus of interest move from one gentrifying neighborhood to another in greater metropolitan New York. Once upon a time it was Soho and Park Slope, Brooklyn; today it’s DUMBO, which stands for down under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass, and the Lower East Side where hip shops, stylish new hotels and restaurants have replaced garment workshops and push carts selling fruit and vegetables.
Days gone by in that neighborhood--east of the Bowery and south of Houston St.--come alive at the Tenement Museum in an Orchard St. apartment house where a long chain of German Jewish, Irish and Italian immigrants tried to make good in America. Tours of the building reveal how they lived from 1863 to 1935 with no electric lights, heating or indoor plumbing. Some made it out of the Lower East Side, while others who couldn’t manage to pay the rent moved to even worse neighborhoods.
The Tenement Museum also offers walking tours, one of which I recently joined. The first question I asked the guide on the pavement outside was what exactly is a tenement? I wanted to know because I live in what I assume was a West Village tenement building, characterized by its layout--two apartments in back, two in the front, on each floor--fire escape climbing the façade and a tight, narrow internal staircase. The guide elaborated on the definition, describing a tenement as a building housing three or more unrelated families, originally with exterior wooden steps linking the floors where housewives hung drying laundry.
In the 1860’s the Lower East Side was deluged with a wave of immigrants from Germany; known as Klein Deutschland, it had the 5th largest German-speaking population among cities in the world at the time. The garment industry provided jobs, along with cigar factories and push carts. At 86 Orchard St., a sign that says Max Feinberg identifies a brick building that now hosts a chichi Mexican restaurant as the former home of Majestic Hosiery.
Around the corner at 133 Allen St., where there was once an elevated train and the city is building a bike lane--back to the future, as they say--we stopped in front the Church of Grace to Fujianese. It‘s a Christian worship place for fairly recent immigrants from China’s Fuzhou Province, but before that the building served as a bathhouse for the district’s great unwashed.
More characteristic of the Lower East Side in the late 19th century are the myriad synagogues tucked between storefronts like the Kehila Kodosha Janina temple at 280 Broome St., home to a small, obscure sect of Judaism that grew up in Greece during the Roman Era, and the former Congregation Poel Zedek Anshe Ileya, now a Seventh-Day Adventist Church at the corner of Forsyth and Delancey Streets, which actually began its long life as a German Presbyterian Church complete with a rose window around 1890.
Across the street Sara Roosevelt Park, named for FDR’s mother and opened around 1930, runs in a narrow strip between East Houston and Canal Steets. The city established the park at a time when it hoped to provide one acre of green space for every 600 people. Now the ratio is more like one acre for every 12,000 in the densely-packed neighborhood and the park has welcomed serendipitous new enterprises like the Wah Mei bird garden and the M’Finda Kaluma community garden, opened in 1983 partly to commemorate an abandoned nearby African cemetery and partly to stem drug dealing that was rampant in the area.
Just east of the park at the intersection of Rivington and Eldridge Streets, we stood in front of the University Settlement, a welfare organization founded by wealthy, educated New Yorkers in 1886 to aid immigrants by providing education and social services. It continues to do so now, though the clientele has changed since the neighborhood’s German immigrant days.
The Tenement Museum walking tour which lasts for two hours covers much more ground than this. I was exhausted by the time I finished. Fortunately, places for refreshment abound in the neighborhood, from cool cafes like 88 Orchard to Yonah Schimmel’s Knishery at 137 East Houston, which has been baking authentic knishes filled with potato, cabbage and spinach since 1890.